Category: Consumer Psychology

99% pure, 99% fat free, and kills 99.99% of germs are the common advertisement messages given by different brands. Why the same brands does not use 1% impure, 1% fat, and 0.01 % germs survive?. Using the right kind message will induce consumers to buy product. Framing effect is the reason behind using the marketing messages like the ones mentioned above.

Cool mint fragrance toilet cleaner ads. Cleaner bobs kill germs inside toilet bowl. Vector realistic illustration. Horizontal banner.

Kills 99.9% of Bacteria – Source:

In 1979, Daniel Kahneman and Amos Tversky published a paper titled “Prospect Theory:An Analysis of Decision Under Risk”.(Also Tversky A., Kahneman D. (1985),Kahneman D. Tversky A.,(1983)). This paper investigated and questioned “expected utility theory” which is widely used in the area of economic decision making. Expected utility theory uses probabilities of the outcome and does not consider any other irrational factors of humans. To support their claim, authors refers to Allais Paradox which was proposed in the year 1953 by Maurice Allais. Continue reading


Creating an advert with a hidden meaning or image can be joyful for marketers. However, is it meaningful to use them in marketing campaigns?. As a marketer, one has to seek advice from academic think tanks before creating such an advert. Commercials that imbue consumers through hidden meanings may lose the entire plot. This article discuss on the realm of subliminal perception.

To put it simple, subliminal perception are cues (can be an image, sound, or any other object) that are not processed by our brain consciously(see Figure 1). In other words, they are not seen by consumers and it is not perceivable immediately. Have you observed Baskin and Robbins logo, is there anything different? (see Figure 2).


Figure 1: Supraliminal  vs Subliminal. Retrieved from

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Weber’s law in marketing

Ice creams are served in a round tub and juices are served in tall slim glasses. Is there anything fuzzy about it?. Yes, indeed as a consumer we feel we were served more. If you want to test it, go ahead and pour the same amount of juice in standard measuring water bottle – you will get know how much you were actually served. A consumer normally don’t know differences when they are subtle. Though, they identify the differences when they are salient and extreme.


Pic 1: Do we really notice these things during purchase? Source:

Ernst Heinrich Weber a psychologist of 17th century studied how people differentiate between the same stimuli in two different occasions. Imagine you are now lifting  2 pounds of chocolate in your hand and then if you lift a 2.1 pounds of chocolate in the second occasion. Will you feel the difference?. Continue reading

Lionel Robbins in his book, “An Essay on the Nature and Significance of Economic Science” has given a definition for economics through the lens of scarcity. The definition is given by him is imperative even now. He defined,

“Economics is the science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses”.

                                                                                                                             – Lionel Robbins

Scarcity of any commodity creates demand for it and that demand leads to higher price ( based on demand curve).

Robert Cialdini in his famous book “Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion” has mentioned “Scarcity principle” can be used in persuasion. His article titled “The Science of Persuasion”  he explains how scarcity can influence people and how marketers use it influence consumers. This article explores about the use of scarcity in marketing context to persuade consumers. Before getting into the literature, let’s have a look at an example of scarcity effect in marketing.

Online platforms like Amazon, Ebay, Flipkart and many other websites mostly creates this scarcity effect to influence consumers to buy product. Take a look at the picture given below to get a good grasp of practical use of scarcity appeal. Continue reading